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waec 2021 Animal Husbandry syllable

WAEC Animal Husbandry Syllabus 

1.  PREAMBLE 

This syllabus has been designed to portray animal husbandry as a trade for livelihood with emphasis on the acquisition of knowledge and entrepreneurial skills in animal husbandry.

Candidates will be expected to answer questions on all the topics set out in the column headed Syllabus. The notestherein are intended to indicate the scope of the questions which will be set, but they are not to be considered as an exhaustive list of limitations and illustrations.

2.  AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The syllabus will therefore seek to assess candidates’ knowledge and skills in:

(1)   Basic animal production practices such as feeding, housing, pest and disease control;

(2) Efficient and effective management of animal enterprise;

(3) Efficient processing, preservation, packaging, storage and marketing of animal products;

(4) Basic entrepreneurial skills in animal husbandry related vocations;

(5) Basic knowledge and skills in animal improvement and health.

3.  REQUIREMENTS

(1)   Schools offering Animal Husbandry are expected to raise at least one species of farm animals from each of the following groups:

(a) Monogastrics e.g. poultry, pigs, snails, camel, donkey, horse, rabbit, bee.

(b) Ruminants e.g. cattle, sheep and goat.

(2) It is recommended that the schools should have agricultural laboratories.

(3) It is also recommended that candidates keep practical notebooks and specimen albums which should contain records of activities undertaken and observations made on the school farm and field trips and of specimens collected.

(4) It is also expected that the study would be supplemented by visits to well established livestock and poultry farms, abattoirs, feed mills, animal product-based companies and other institutions related to animal. 

SCHEME OF EXAMINATION

There will be three papers, Papers 1, 2 and 3; all of which must be taken. Papers 1 and 2 will be a composite paper to be taken at one sitting

PAPER 1: Will consist of forty multiple choice questions all of which should be answered within 40 minutes for 40 marks.

PAPER 2: Will consist of six essay questions drawn from the entire syllabus. Each question carries 20 marks. Candidates will be required to answer four questions within 2 hours for a total of 80 marks.

PAPER 3: Will be a practical paper for school candidates and a test practical work paper for private candidates. Each version will consist of four questions all of which should be answered within 1½ hours for 60 marks.

DETAILED SYLLABUS

A. LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

(1)  Importance of farm animals

Discussion should include:-  

source of food(meat, milk, eggs,honey etc);

 –   raw materials e.g. hide and skin, bones, hooves, hair/fur, egg shells;

–   source of manure (fertilizer, bio-gas, bio fuel), growing of maggotsand earthworms;

–   source of feed ingredients- blood meal, bone meal, meat and bonemeal, snail shell, egg shell, feathersetc;

–   animal power (animal traction,transportation);

–   research (laboratory, field), drugs,vaccines, hormones etc;

–   source of employment;

–   sales of products and by-products;

–   social functions e.g. payment ofbride price, cultural displays(weddings);

–   for security e.g. ducks, bees,turkeys;

–   as pets e.g. rabbits, sheep, chickens;

–   sports and games e.g. horse racing, chicken fighting;

–   religious festivals e.g. turkeys, rams etc;

–   source of foreign exchange through export of animal products and by-products.

2. Classification of farm animals.

 Discussion should be based on stomach type:

(a) Classification of Animals  Simple stomach (non- ruminant or monogastric). e.g. poultry (avian),

3. Internal organs and their functions in farm animals.

4. Body systems and their functions in farm animals

5. Reproduction in farm animals

(a) Definition of terms used in livestock reproduction.

(b) Reproduction in livestock (mammals).

(c) Reproduction in poultry.

(d) Reproductive hormones and their functions.

(e) Management of pregnant farm animals: pig (swine), rabbits, horses, donkeys, snails, bees, grass cutters;

(b) Complex stomach (polygastric or ruminants) i.e. cattle, sheep and goat.

Identification should include:

(i)         External features of common ruminants and non-ruminants;

(ii)        Differences should be based on type of stomach and type of feed consumed.

Identification of internal organs of farm animals e.g. (liver, lungs, heart, kidney, spleen, pancreas, stomach, crop, caecum, gizzard, small intestine, large intestine, tongue etc, and their functions).

Discussions should include digestive, respiratory, nervous, circulatory, skeletal, reproductive systems. Students are expected to understand the functions of each system.

Discussion should include ovulation, oestrus cycle, heat period, signs of heat, mating, gestation, parturition, lactation, colostrum, flushing, steaming up, dystocia, vaginal prolapse etc.

Discussion should include detection of heat, mating systems, pregnancy detection and signs of parturition.

Knowledge of the process of egg formation in poultry is required.

Sources and roles of female hormones (oestrogen, progesterone, relaxin, oxytocin etc) and male hormones (testosterone/androgen) should be emphasised.

Discussion should include regular and adequate feeding, body exercise, steaming up, separation from male animals, provision of clean and adequate water livestock management systems, Management practices of livestock.

B.  ANIMAL NUTRITION

(1)   Meaning and classes of animal feeds.

(2)   Animal feeds and feeding

(a)    Livestock rations administration of drugs where necessary, dipping to eliminate ecto-parasites, parturition etc

Knowledge of livestock management systems: intensive, semi-intensive and extensive system is required. Discussion should include advantages and disadvantages of each of the systems.

Discussion should include housing requirements for each of the farm animals and students are expected to have the knowledge of the use of local materials for construction of the animal houses. Understanding of other management practices: feeding, sanitation, hygiene, castration, dehorning, deworming, vaccination, inoculation, culling, debeaking, smoking (in bees), docking (detailing), means of identification of farm animals (tattooing, branding, ear-notching, rings etc), isolation, weaning, care of the young animal until they are weaned etc, is essential. Simple record keeping including income and expenditure accounts is necessary. Importance of each of these practices should be discussed. Discussion should also include the management practices from birth to maturity of a named large ruminant, small ruminant, poultry, pigs, grasscutter, bees and snails.

Discussion should include the meaning of animal nutrition, feed nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, fats and oil, vitamins, minerals and water), their functions and sources and their deficiencies in farm animals. Students should also be exposed to classification of animal feeds into concentrates, roughages, supplements, feed additives etc.

Study should include meaning of livestock rations and types (balanced, maintenance, production rations. Malnutrition: meaning,

(3)   Processing and marketing of animal products.

      (a).Processing techniques for different farm animal products

(b). Marketing of animal products.

causes, symptoms and practical ways to check malnutrition such as feeding balanced rations to animals, feeding weaker animals separately, deworming animals, giving supplementary feeds, addition of feed additives to stimulate appetite, protecting animals from toxic plants and harmful substances, adjusting stocking rates appropriately, provision of good quality and adequate water etc, should be studied.

Students should be exposed to practical diet formulations for the different classes of farm animals (starter, grower and finisher diets). Students should be able to identify different feed ingredients used for diet formulations e.g. blood meal, fish meal, cotton seed cake, oyster shell, groundnut cake, maize grains, salt, premix, glycine etc. Factors to consider in feed formulation for farm animals e.g. physiological status of animal, species, age, body weight, production target, acceptability of feed, nutrient composition of the feed, ingredient availability, cost of feed ingredients etc, should be studied.

The processing techniques to include: pre-slaughtering, slaughtering and post-slaughtering activities. Hygienic conditions in processing are also important. Students should understand slaughtering techniques for different farm animals. Students should also be exposed to processing of animal products e.g. egg, milk, meat, skin, wool, honey, snail shell and feathers, fur, hooves, horns, blood, faeces/droppings into other forms (value addition). Understanding of common marketing channels and agents such as producers, wholesalers, retailers, consumers etc is required. Advantages and disadvantages of each marketing channel and agent should be discussed 

C.    PASTURE AND RANGE MANAGEMENT 

(a) Introduction, selection and breeding.       

(b). Merits and demerits of methods: Students are required to understand merits used in farm animal improvement and demerits of each method used in farm animal improvement.

2.  Artificial insemination.

(a). Meaning of artificial: Explanation of the term artificial insemination. insemination is required

(b). Artificial insemination.: Discussion to include identification of materials, methods, steps and precautions in carrying out artificial insemination.

(c). Advantages of artificial: Knowledge of advantages of artificial insemination. insemination is required.

E.  ANIMAL HEALTH 

1.  Farm animal diseases and pathogens. 

(a). Concept of farm animal disease. : Knowledge of meaning and causal agents

(b) General symptoms of diseases in farm animals. :(bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) of diseases in farm animals is required. Discussion to include signs of a sick animal e.g. loss of appetite, loss of weight, diarrhoea, high body temperature, blood stained urine, gnashing of teeth, discharges from natural openings, blood stained feaces, ruffled feathers or fur, standing hair, undue noise, excessive salivation, anaemia, staggering gait, difficulty in breathing, coma, sudden death etc.

(c). Diseases of farm animals prevention and control.

breathing, coma, sudden death etc. Ability to identify the main diseases of farm animals, their causal agents, mode of transmission and symptoms is required. Simple preventive and control measures including the use of antibiotics and ethno veterinary practices are required.

(d) Factors predisposing farm animals to diseases.

Knowledge of factors that predispose farm animals to diseases e.g. poor nutrition, poor health status, poor sanitation, inadequate bio security, overcrowding, unfavorable weather conditions, low immunity etc is required.

2. Livestock parasites and pests.

(a). Livestock parasites.: Understanding of the meaning, classes, control/prevention and effects of parasites on farm animals is required. Discussion to include lif cycles of the parasites. Ability to identify and understand economic importance of ecto-parasites (ticks, lice, mites, fleas etc.) and endo-parasites (tapeworm, roundworm, hookworm, pinworm, liver fluke, trypanosome etc) is required.

(b). Livestock pests.    Knowledge of livestock pests (rodents, snakes, soldier ants, birds, weevils, termites, flies etc), prevention/control using dewormers, acaricides, pesticides and ethno veterinary practices, and effects of pests on farm animals will be assessed. Ability to identify and knowledge of economic importance of storage pests (rodents, weevils, termites, cockroaches etc), field pests (soldier ants, birds, snakes flies etc) are required.

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY (PRACTICALS)

CONTENTS

NOTES

1.  Products and by-products of farm

Ability to identify and knowledge of the

animals.

uses of animal products and by-products

such as meat, eggs, milk, honey, hides,

skin, blood, hair, wool, feathers, horn,

hooves, bones, snail shell, animal dung etc.

will be assessed.

2.  Identification of farm animals.

Ability to describe, draw and label the

external parts of farm animals will be

assessed.

3.  Internal organs and their functions

Ability to identify and draw the major

in farm animals.

internal structures in the various body

systems of a named ruminant, poultry and

pig is required. Differences in the

structures and their functions will also be

assessed.

5.  Feeds and feedstuffs

6.  Pasture and forage crops.

Ability to identify the following tools and the equipment used in animal management practices is required e.g: Housing (head pan, trowel, shovel/spade, hammer, pincers, pliers, spanner, screw driver etc), Brooding (coal pots, kerosene stoves, hurricane lantern, electric bulb, hoover, chick feeder, flat trays, chick drinker, brood guard/surround, thermometer, hygrometer etc), Feeding (feeders, drinkers, weighing scale etc), Identification (branding iron, ear clips, neck chains, marker, ear notcher, indelible ink etc), Debeaking (debeaking machine, sharp knife, heater etc), Castration (surgical blade/scalpel, burdizzo, elastrator, elastic ring, cotton wool, suture needle, suture thread etc ), Handling ( krawl, restraining ropes, wooden rod- sanda, pad, nose ring, etc), Dehorning (iron saw, knife/cutlass etc), Incubation (incubator, hatcher, chick box, egg tray, humidifier, candler,), Milking (cheese cloth, milking machine, milking chute, milk testing cup, drenching bottle, milking pails, buckets etc), Slaughtering (cutlass, knife, stunning gun, electric shocker, defeathering machine, eviscerator, conveyor, weighing scale, blast freezer, cold rooms); Pasture and forage crops (sickle, knife/cutlass, harvesters, silo etc). The maintenance of these tools and equipment should be discussed.

Ability to identify and knowledge of uses of feeds and feedstuffs such as common feed ingredients (maize, groundnut cake, soya bean meal, palm kernel cake, fish meal, bone meal, oyster shell, limestone, salt, salt lick, premix, wheat offal etc), crop residues, agricultural by-products and non-conventional(jack bean, rumen digesta, cassava peel etc) and the major nutrients they contain will be assessed.

Ability to identify and the knowledge of uses of common pasture and forage crops are required. Hay and silage making should be discussed.

7. Artificial insemination.

Ability to identify the tools and equipment

and their uses are required. Simple

techniques of semen collection,

preservation and insemination should be

discussed.

8. Pests and parasites of farm animals.

Ability to identify and knowledge of the

(a). Pests of farm animals.

economic importance of storage pests

(rodents, weevils, termites, cockroaches

etc), field pests (soldier ants, birds, snakes,

flies etc) are required.

Ability to identify and knowledge of

(b)  Parasites of farm animals.

economic importance of ectoparasites

(ticks, lice, mites, fleas etc) and

endoparasites (tapeworm, roundworms,

hook worm, pin worm, liver fluke,

trypanosomes etc) are required.Study

should also include life cycles, prevention

and control of these parasites.

LIST OF FACILITIES AND MAJOR EQUIPMENT

A. FARM BUILDING/STRUCTURE

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY

NO

REQUIRED

1.

Poultry/Pig

1

House/Battery Cages

2.

Cattle/Goat/Sheep Pen

1

3.

Rabbit/Grasscutter

1

Hutch

4.

Snairy/Bee Hive

1

B.        LIVE ANIMALS 

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY

NO.

REQUIRED

1.

Poultry/Pig

10

2.

Rabbits/Grass cutter

10

3.

Cattle/Sheep/Goat

10

4.

Snails/Bees

50/100

C. SPECIMEN

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

NO.

1.

Tick

2.

Lice

3.

Liver fluke

4.

Tapeworm

5.

Roundworm

6.

Flea

7.

Tsetse fly

8.

Pests

D. CHARTS AND PICTURES

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY

NO.

REQUIRED

1.

Digestive system of ruminants

5

2.

Digestive system of non-ruminants

5

3.

 Reproductive organs of male

5

Livestock

4.

Reproductive   organs   of   female livestock

5

5.

Reproductive tract of poultry

5

6.

Skeletal system of farm animals

5

7.

Circulatory system

5

8.

Muscular system

5

9.

Endocrine system

5

10.

Calendar of ovulation

5

11.

Calendar of Oestrus cycle

5

12.

Classes of farm animals

5

13.

Calendar of heat period

5

14.

Calendar of animal diseases

5

MACHINES AND EQUIPMENT

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY

NO.

REQUIRED

1.

Buddizor pliers/castrators

2

2.

Elastrators

2

3.

Debeakers

2

4.

Candlers

2

5.

Dehorning saw

4

6.

Ear notching knife

2

7.

Electro-ejaculator

2

8.

Artificial Inseminators

2

9.

Hand sprayer/Knapsack sprayer

2

10.

Refrigerators to store materials

2

13

11.

Clinical thermometer

2

12.

Films

Many

13.

Television

2

14.

CD Video Player

2

15.

16mm Film Projector

2

F.    DRUGS/VACCINES/MATERIALS 

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY

NO.

REQUIRED

1.

First aids kits/boxes containing

2

surgical  blades,  cotton  wool,

iodine and razor.

2.

Sterilizers e.g. Dettol, Izal

4

3.

Syringes and Needles

10

4.

Vaccines (various forms)

5

5.

Formalin, etc.

2 bottles

G.    FEED SAMPLES 

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY

NO.

REQUIRED

1.

Bone meal

½ kg

2.

Blood meal

½ kg

3.

Fish meal

½ kg

4.

Groundnut cake

½ kg

5.

Maize grains

½ kg

6.

Groundnut meal

½ kg

7.

Coconut meal

½ kg

8.

Egg shell meal

½ kg

9.

Palm kernel meal

½ kg

10.

Periwinkle shell

½ kg

11.

Mineral salt lick, etc.

½ kg

H.     OTHER MATERIALS 

ITEM

EQUIPMENT

QUANTITY

NO.

REQUIRED

1.

Feeding   trough   (Metal   and

5

Plastic)

2.

Drinkers (Metal and Plastic)

5

3.

Lanterns (source of heat)

5

4.

Foot dips

5

5.

Notebooks for Accounts and

5

Records

6.

Wheelbarrow

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